Stress is at the root of so many physical and mental health struggles Americans deal with; and comes at a major cost to not only ourselves, but our families, communities, jobs, the health care system, and beyond.
From the obvious of anxiety, depression, and PTSD – to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and even neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and dementia; the reduction or elimination of psychological stressors in our life can pay huge dividends both personally and financially.
I had the great pleasure recently of interviewing a well-known mindfulness expert who has been featured on Dr. Oz and other popular programs. Cory Muscara shared with me, and my listeners, a simple, yet highly effective technique to break the cycle of damaging stress responses in just a few short breaths.
How it’s done
- Hold your hand in front of you, palm side up, with elbow bent at 90°
- Take the index (pointer) finger of the opposite hand and place it in the palm facing you just in front of the wrist crease
- As you begin to inhale slowly and deeply, slide your finger along the course of your thumb to the tip
- Follow the course of the thumb with your finger back to the wrist as you slowly exhale
- Proceed as such for the pointer, middle, ring, and pinky fingers for a total of 5 breaths
- Initially perform with eyes open, then try with eyes closed
What it does
Pausing to breath like this, while bringing your attention to the tactile sensation of your finger sliding on your hand, creates a few moments of mindfulness that can interrupt most any stressor and get your brain back on track. This technique creates a parasympathetic (relaxation) response that will lower your heart rate, normalize breathing patterns, and simply make you feel better!
Practice often and you will find that even thinking about it will evoke the same responses.
To listen to the full podcast with Cory, please visit www.TrainYourBrainPodcast.com – Episode #339.
For other posts on stress and stress management, click here.
A (Sometimes) Long and Winding Road
Recovery from any type of addiction can be a monumental task. Even for those ready to take it on, the road can be a painful one loaded with many obstacles. Although, one that will ultimately pay off with better health, better relationships, and overall better quality of life.
Smooth the Way to Your Independence
So, what can be done to ease the pain of transition from a life of dependence to one of self-control and freedom?
While not a ‘one-size-fits-all’, the following 3 tips are proven strategies that can help soften the blows the various phases of recovery throw at you. And, ultimately, lead you to a life of positive practices that will replace the conditions and substances you seek to avoid.
All of these common-knowledge practices seek to establish harmony in and between the brain and the body. When the ‘mind-body’ connections are performing at their best, you will have the greatest chance at overcoming your struggles (whether recent or lifelong).
Addiction Recovery Tips
- Meditate Daily – Research continues to show how sitting quietly for periods of time with a focus on ‘present moment’ sensations like breathing can allow for greater focus, clarity of thought, and self-regulation. Start at 5 minutes and work to 20 minutes daily.
- Exercise Daily – One of the best ways to control and improve functions of our brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) is to do vigorous exercise daily. Get your heart rate up, do resistive and high intensity activities, and, most importantly, move daily!
- Eat Smart – Eat whole foods, eliminate refined and processed foods (i.e. anything in a bag, box, or can), increase healthy fat and protein intake, limit sugar intake (sugar can be as addictive as heroin or cocaine), and stay well hydrated (that means water).
Stay tuned for Part II of II where we will go over the next 3 addiction recovery tips.
It’s All About Resources
Every March, Brain Injury Awareness Month, led by the Brain Injury Association of America, kicks into high gear to educate the public on this major public health crisis. From concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) to severe brain injury and stroke; all of these conditions have a far-reaching impact. An impact on the individual who has suffered the injury, families and caregivers, communities, and our ever-burdened health care system.
The greatest challenge for those affected by these unfortunate, and often preventable, events is access to resources. Educational and treatment resources beyond the initial stage of injury is often hard to come by and folks are left to their own devices to put the pieces together for the most productive life possible. This, while being told by so many (including their doctors and family) that there is not much hope for further recovery.
Where to Look For Answers
What follows are links to a host of resources exploring many aspects of brain injury. Content related to understanding why so many continue to experience the symptoms they do. Some resources will explain symptoms in detail and why they occur, and others will look into what tests you can have done to determine what path of treatment is best for you. Most importantly, these resources demonstrate a clear message of hope for so many to get beyond their daily struggles. Be sure to watch the videos of those who have done just that!
We understand that those who have injured their brain digest information in different ways, therefore the content is made available in written (blog), audio (podcast), and video formats. Please enjoy, learn something, act on something; and pass the Brain Injury Awareness word on to others who can benefit and renew their hope.
Brain Injury Awareness Links
As the Old Saying Goes…
…If I had a dime for every time someone with concussion said “my doctor doesn’t listen to me”. Nearly every day in clinical practice patients report to me one way or another this very real concern. While this is true across all areas of specialty at our center, it is far more prevalent in those suffering the effects of concussion and post-concussion syndrome.
There are several theories as to why many doctors don’t take the time to listen. These can be explored at length with a simple internet search. Here, I will briefly explore some of these more accepted views and, more importantly, what I have come to see is the real truth behind why so many are being ignored, and in many cases dismissed, by their ‘trusted’ health care providers.
The Usual Suspects
- Time. Most primary care physicians are pressured by the demands of heavy patient loads and declining insurance reimbursements. That leaves you as the patient at the mercy of a provider that may only give you one minute or less to voice your concerns; which for those of you with concussion are often too many to list.
- Distraction. Electronic records, insurance forms, mobile devices, and excessive patient volume can cause doctors to get caught up in things that are not right in front of them. That is you, the patient. If a doctor is distracted, they will not do a great job at listening.
- Bias. It has been established that many doctors will spend less time with individuals based on race, gender, and other factors such as socio-economic status. Also, patients that come in with recurring complaints are more likely to be dismissed or ignored.
While I believe these are accurate (although unacceptable) reasons for many being short-changed when it comes to their health care provider’s attention; there are more specific reasons doctors don’t listen when it comes to the laundry list of life struggles that can accompany concussion and post-concussion syndrome.
The Real Story Doctors Don’t Listen to Those With Concussion
- Ignorance. This may seem like a harsh term to many (particularly the doctors), although it simply means that most primary care providers lack the knowledge and information necessary to properly question and screen for these types of conditions.
- Invisible. Concussions are not seen on CT scans or found in blood work. They are silent injuries that result in functional problems with balance, vision, cognitive abilities, and more. Conventional medical approaches are not well suited for these conditions; therefore, doctors are less inclined to listen to problems they cannot treat.
- Overwhelming. The number of symptoms and conditions that can result from a hit to the head are staggering (we’ve compiled a list of over 50!). Most doctors when presented with 5, 10, or more complaints may focus only on 1 or 2 as this is what they are accustomed to.
- Unknown. Even with all the attention given to concussion over the past several years in sports, the media, and movies, this is still uncharted territory for most providers in mainstream medicine. This is also true for many of the doctors those with concussion are being referred to.
So, What’s the Answer?
The internet is full of strategies to get your provider to listen better. This, however, is not the focus of this article. And, it will not serve you well to try and get those that don’t understand concussion to listen to you! What you need to do is seek out the services of a qualified functional neurologist who is well versed in the art of listening. And, who understands the multitude of symptoms those with concussion and post-concussion syndrome experience. Only then will you be able to get answers as to what the best method of treatment will be for you. Concussions are real, and so are the symptoms and solutions!
For more information please call us at 828.708.5274, or visit any of the following resources:
The Current Situation – Great Cause for Alarm!
There has been a distinct disconnect between the “mind” and “brain” sciences when it comes to addiction, and what is looked at more and more as being at the root of addiction and substance use – learning and behavioral disorders. In her ground-breaking book, Unbroken Brain: A revolutionary new way of understanding addiction, Maia Szalavitz states:
“Our brains are embodied – much of the problem with the debate over addiction and psychiatry more generally is a refusal to accept this and our ongoing need to see “physical”, “neurological”, and “psychological” as completely distinct.”
There is a fundamental flaw with this outdated thinking, a flaw that has in part led to skyrocketing heroin usage (especially among those ages 18-25) and overdose rates that have quadrupled since 2010. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, illicit drugs cost the US nearly $200 billion annually, just behind alcohol and tobacco use ($224 and $295 billion, respectively). Not to mention, the obvious cost of lives lost, fractured relationships, and communities being torn apart.
Clearly, things are getting worse, not better. Substance use is becoming harder than ever to treat given the broad scope of substances being used, increasing potency levels, rates of consumption, varied methods of delivery, decreasing age of usage, and the numerous learning and behavioral issues those with addiction have prior to onset that have not been appropriately treated (or, treated with medications that may lead to, or complicate, the addiction itself).
At the Root of the Problem
ADHD, anxiety, OCD, ODD, anxiety, depression, sensory processing disorders, schizophrenia, and PTSD are just some of the many learning, behavioral, and mental health disorders that cause people to seek balance in their life through use of chemical substances. The long-held belief that addiction is genetic and an inevitable consequence for the affected, or that substance users are damaged and incapable of recovery, is beginning to dissolve. So are many of the tough love and shaming techniques that have been the norm across the addictions treatment arena for well over half a century.
Time for a Paradigm Shift
To understand that learning dictates behavior, and that impaired learning will lead to behavioral patterns that will set the stage for addiction, is the first step in effectively dealing with substance use disorders. Most learning and behavioral challenges have physical and cognitive manifestations that can be measured (i.e. impaired eye movements, balance, timing, attention, memory, etc.), whether prior to or during the addiction recovery process.
Once these impairments are measured, there are a host of research-backed Brain Training modalities that can be implemented by qualified professionals for correction of deficient function. This will lead to more effective remediation of the learning or behavioral disorder, and, ultimately, the seeking of normalcy through chemical dependence that is hallmark with substance use disorders.
Brain Training for Addiction and Substance Use Disorders
- Brainwave Optimization – Better known as neurofeedback (NFB), neurobiofeedback, or neurotherapy. NFB, while available since the 1950s, has gained significant popularity in the recovery arena as of late. Through sophisticated computer analysis, one is trained to self-regulate brainwave activity by hearing sounds or other reinforcements that signal a more desirable or efficient state of function within the brain has been obtained.
- Training of Brain Timing – Temporal processing is the rate at which sounds can be processed in the brain. When one is unable to process at sufficient and accurate rates, learning will be impaired and behavior impacted. Programs like the Interactive Metronome® have been shown to improve learning capacity, attention and focus, and decrease destructive impulsive and repetitive behaviors.
- Training of Balance – The balance (vestibular) system, which is made up of structures in the inner ear and is directly influenced by systems of vision, posture, and hearing, is directly plugged into our frontal brain. This more “human” part of our brain has a profound influence on learning and behavior and is positively impacted by improvements in balance and coordination.
- Training of Eye Movements – Fixating on a target in your visual field, moving your eyes slow or fast, watching an object move closer or further away, and certain inborn eye reflexes help to make us uniquely human. Many of the control centers of these functions live in our frontal brain. Correction of certain faults in eye movements can lead to improved cognitive abilities.
- Neurological Rehabilitation – While training of balance and eye movements fall into this category, they have been given separate explanation given their heavy influence on learning and behavior. Complex motor skills, whole body vibration, electrical stimulation, strength and conditioning, smell and sound therapies, and so much more impact the brain in a positive way to minimize the effects of learning and behavioral issues on one’s life.
- Metabolic Therapies – To address brain function without paying mind to the numerous nutritional and metabolic factors that go into a properly functioning brain is akin to throwing a bunch of random ingredients together and hoping it turns out like your favorite dish. Blood sugar, stress hormones, neurotransmitters, micronutrients, food allergies, among countless other factors, are just a sampling of what can be evaluated, and in many cases corrected, via dietary shifts and nutraceutical intervention.
A New Era for Addiction and Substance Use Disorders
While mental health therapies have been, and always will be, an integral component of a sound addiction recovery strategy; more is needed. It is abundantly clear that what is in fact needed are scientific, evidence-based strategies to address the underlying learning and behavioral issues that are the hallmark of any addiction profile. What is needed is Brain Training… To measure and manage numerous ‘biomarkers’ of brain function with sophisticated diagnostic testing, and effect positive change in these markers through progressive neurological training modalities. This, in concert with the more traditional mental health options, is what holds the greatest hope for recovery in those battling addiction and substance use disorders!
Ahh, the holidays! Time for many to celebrate their faith. Time for others to reflect on the accomplishments of yet another year gone by, and to plan for an even better one ahead. Time to be with family, give thanks, serve others, and enjoy a break from the normal routines of life. Right???
In a perfect world, yes. Although, the stark reality for so many is that the holidays bring on an increasingly high level of undue stress for more reasons than there are days in the holiday season. Financial struggles, health concerns, passing of a loved one, work deadlines, shopping, travel, crowds, and family squabbles are but a few that can spark fear, worry, sadness, anxiety, and depression in just about anyone; if they are not prepared for it.
Add to this the profound increase in calorie intake (particularly sugars), sedentary behavior, late nights and poor sleep, excessive alcohol intake, travel fatigue, decreased physical activity levels, and a general lack of attention to one’s health this time of year, and you have a perfect recipe for both simple and deadly mental and physical health problems.
While suicide increase during the holidays has largely been proven a myth, there are direct correlations between increased mental and physical stress around the holidays leading to exacerbation of depression and other mental health disorders, and a resultant spike in the number of calls to suicide prevention and substance abuse hotlines. It can be theorized that many around the holidays are thankfully unable to act on suicidal thoughts give the increased presence of friends and family, although self-medication through increased drug and alcohol use over the holidays can certainly lead to worse outcomes after the new year for many.
While this is a piece on stress around the holidays, the importance of physical health (which is directly impacted by stress) needs to be considered briefly. As an example, the journal Circulation published research in 2004 showing nationwide trends in heart attacks increasing by 5% during the holidays, with peak incidences occurring on both Christmas and New Year’s Day. Coincidence??? Certainly not. An editorial in the same edition of this journal discussed further the “Merry Christmas Coronary” and the “Happy New Year Heart Attack” phenomenon – related to increased mental and physical stressors this time of year.
With the gloomy realities and statistics behind us, we can now focus on what is most important – what can we do to prevent or minimize the fallout of the holiday season to ensure we may enjoy it to the fullest, and so that we may proceed with peace of mind, good health, and longevity into the year ahead?
- Drink responsibly. Limit your alcohol intake to one drink every 2 hours in social situations, with water in between to avoid intoxication and dehydration – your brain will thank you!
- Walk away. Don’t feel you must change anyone’s mind about politics, sports, or anything else for that matter. Engage in positive dialogue.
- Reach out. If something is deeply upsetting you, sometimes the worst thing to do is hold it in while everyone else is celebrating. Confide in a trusted source.
- Don’t stress over shopping. Getting into fist fights over the newest TV or toy is clearly not what the holidays are about and will dramatically increase your stress levels. Is it really about the presents?
- It’s OK not to travel. Many are compelled to travel due to family pressures and the like. It is OK to ‘skip a year’ if you are overwhelmed and feel you need a break.
- Get to bed. Sleep cycles are impacted enough going into winter with shorter days and longer nights. Be mindful of sleep routines as they have a large impact on buffering chronic stress responses and clearing your brain of toxins.
- Stick to your regular eating habits. If they are healthy ones, that is. It is OK to ‘sample the goods’ around the holidays, but overdoing it will be sure to weaken your immune system and allow stress to harm your brain and body.
- Move your body. Exercise should be a regular part of your daily routine, especially around the holidays. It minimizes the effects of stress and burns the excess calories you will likely indulge in.
- Meditate. Quiet time away from the distractions of the holidays to self-reflect and calm your mind will reduce stress levels.
- Turn off the tube. TV usage skyrockets during the holidays for many, leading to less physical activity and social disconnection. Decrease computer and social media use while you’re at it!
- Play games, listen to music, tell stories. All activities that will engage your mind and connect you to others around you during the holiday season.
- Connect socially. One of the secrets to stress reduction. Social connection produces hormones that reduce stress. If you have little or no family and friends around, volunteer opportunities abound.
Author’s Note: If you or a loved one is experiencing undue stress during the holiday season (or any season) leading to withdrawn, erratic, or dangerous behavior, increased substance use, trouble at home, work, etc., please know there are resources that can help. Brain Training is a highly effective option for dealing with chronic stress outside of acute or emergency situations. In these situations, national helplines are available and should be utilized:
National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1.800.273.8255
National Substance Abuse Hotline: 1.800.622.HELP (4357)
Addiction or, more appropriately, substance use disorder (SUD) is defined as one’s recurrent use of drugs and/or alcohol leading to significant clinical and functional impairment. This impairment may be reflected in the areas of physical and mental health, employment, school, relationships, finances, and more.
One thing is for certain – the vast majority of those struggling with SUD also have underlying challenges with learning and behavior, and may have one or more mental health disorders. While the reasons for these underlying challenges are likely as many as the number of challenges themselves, this shifting of perspective away from the genetic view of addiction offers great hope for those seeking progressive therapies that, in many cases, can have a profound impact on the underlying disorders and the problem behaviors and outcomes associated with SUD.
Newer thinking also dictates that addictive tendencies can be due to factors such as concussion and traumatic brain injury, and metabolic imbalances caused by food allergies, environmental toxicities, nutrient deficiencies, and the like. And let’s not forget stress…
In order for progressive brain-based modalities to be delivered effectively, which provide a tremendous complement to standard mental health strategies implemented during both in-patient and out-patient programs alike, one needs to understand that SUD is not a disease as we would normally think of one (e.g. cancer, Parkinson’s, etc.), and it is not a moral failing or a character flaw on the part of the user. SUD can affect anyone… of any class, race, gender, and ethnicity.
SUD is in fact a ‘brain problem’ that, in many respects, can be measured and needs to be approached as such for maximum gains. Let us consider 5 areas of measurement related to brain function that reveal a great deal about learning, behavior, and mental health status; and, more importantly, let us realize that something can be done to improve upon function in any or all of these areas:
- Brainwave Activity (EEG) – In our brain we have networks related to attention, vision, sensations, relaxation, emotions, vital functions, and more. How much delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma brainwave activity we have under different circumstances dictates how well various parts of these networks perform. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) is gaining popularity in select mental health circles as an extremely viable diagnostic tool that can enable us to peer into the inner workings of the brain and these brain networks that make us uniquely human.
- Cognitive Testing – Executive function, cognitive flexibility, simple and complex attention, and processing speed are just a few of the tests of higher cognitive function that can reveal a great deal about how one’s brain interacts with its environment. They are also excellent diagnostic tools for monitoring progress when treating the various subsets of learning and behavioral issues underlying SUD.
- Metabolic Function – Blood sugar, amino acids, urine organic acids, food antibodies, heavy metals, environmental toxins, hormones, neurotransmitters, vital nutrients, genetic variants, and so much more are a mix of both classic and progressive ‘biomarkers’ of brain function. How our bodies handle fuel, utilize nutrients, process hormones, and react to toxins in our environments determines how well our brains handle what is presented to them on a moment to moment basis.
- Eye Movements – Generally ignored in the mental health arena from a diagnostic perspective, eye movements of all types are directly related to the brain regions that control them. From primitive abilities of finding visual targets that involve parts of the brainstem and emotional centers like the amygdala (fear response), to fast eye movements controlled by our higher functioning frontal lobes; eye movements deliver a wealth of information related to SUD and its underlying causes. Videonystagmography (VNG) is one type of diagnostic tool used to measure these types of functions.
- Balance and Coordination – More and more, addiction based programs are implementing movement based activities such as Tai Chi and yoga. From both balance and relaxation standpoints, there is good reason to do so. Our sense of self is largely influenced by our ability to physically interact with our environment. When one has severe balance or coordination impairment, as is seen in conditions like schizophrenia, mental function and behavior will likely be impaired. Measurement tools such as dynamic posturography and standard tests of movement and coordination can be utilized to measure these abilities.
The inherent beauty of any of these tools, that can reveal a wealth of information about cognitive, behavioral, and mental functions, is that they can in turn be utilized to track progress when one enters into a collaborative treatment program with their mental health specialists and qualified functional neurologist. The blending of the ‘brain’ and the ‘mind’ sciences is long overdue and is proving to be clinically effective with regard to its impact on addiction and SUD, and the underlying disorders that are being shown with greater clarity to be the root cause of them.
Day of Discovery
- Is your brain not working as well as it used to?
- Have you been struggling with a recent or lifelong brain performance issue that you want answers for?
- Or, do you simply want to know how well your brain is working to ensure it is serving you optimally?
- If you knew there was something you could do to tell, would you do it?
…If so, APEX Brain Centers’ comprehensive ‘Day of Discovery’ is just what you’ve been looking for.
What is it?
The Day of Discovery is an extremely valuable and critical investment in your health, longevity and prosperity. Fear of a declining brain is one of the top issues of our time, and this unique opportunity puts the power of informed guidance in your hands to make the best choices possible for your brain and body health. By investigating numerous ‘biomarkers’ of brain health and integrity, we are able to connect the dots between your experience of life and your current state of brain and body function.
Your Day of Discovery will include the following:
- Comprehensive history and review of previous diagnostic testing
- Comprehensive neurological exam looking at functions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system
- Quantitative EEG (qEEG) for measurement of brainwave activity
- Cognitive testing to assess memory, attention, executive function and more
- Videonystagmography (VNG) for detailed assessment of eye movements
- Dynamic posturography for investigation of multiple aspects of balance
- Interactive Metronome testing of mental and physical timing capabilities
- Review of all testing with precise recommendations for appropriate intervention
What should I expect and how do I prepare?
Your Day of Discovery will take anywhere from 4-6 hours depending on physical ability, level of fatigue, technical factors and any unforeseen circumstances. You will spend the duration of the day in our office and should pack a healthy lunch/snack depending on time of day. You should do your best to obtain quality sleep prior to your Day of Discovery, refrain from alcohol/recreational drug/cigarette intake, maintain adequate hydration, eat a healthy breakfast the morning of testing, bring copies of any pertinent diagnostic tests with you, be on time to ensure the smoothest of transitions throughout the day, not wear any skin care products/make-up/hair gel, and bring a positive and proactive attitude with you as this day is designed to empower you with critical information to help you create positive change in your life; not to point out flaws in your performance!
Call us today at 828.708.5274 to set up your Day of Discovery, or email us at [email protected] for more information.
John is a 66-year-old grandfather and successful businessman from Asheville, NC who plays tennis and counts flying among his favorite hobbies. But he is concerned that his memory is starting to slip. There’s no family history of Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.
John, however, did have a car accident and subsequent skiing accident in which the fall he suffered was so serious that his helmet broke. He also admits that he is often dizzy, fatigued, easily angered, and frustrated over his physical and mental limitations.
Intervention for balance and cognitive decline
John underwent comprehensive Brain Training at a frequency of three times per day over the course of five days. His brain function was carefully monitored throughout the training process with measurement of EEG brainwaves, vital signs, eye movements, balance, mental and physical timing, and more to ensure he was receiving the proper amount of therapy without exceeding fatigue limits that might promote worsening of his symptoms as is often the case in more conventional rehabilitation programs.
Understanding the relationship between physical functions such as balance, timing and eye movements and higher cognitive functions like memory (both major challenges in his case), we implemented the following Brain Training procedures: EEG neurofeedback, Interactive Metronome, vestibular rehabilitation, metabolic/nutritional therapies, eye movement and neurological rehabilitation, electrical stimulation, breathing exercises, lifestyle changes and home care therapies.
Outcomes with Brain Training
John reported midway through his five-day training program that he had “one of his best games of tennis.” He also said he felt less dizzy and improvements in his mood and memory were noticeable to him and others. “I walk better, talk better and feel better,” he said.
Actual measurable, objective improvements recorded with post-intensive diagnostic testing included:
- Interactive Metronome (Timing): 14% improvement in timing accuracy and normalization of hyper-anticipatory timing tendency with motor tasks (i.e. becoming more ‘in-sync’ with a specified reference tone).
- Videonystagmography (Eye movements): Significant improvements in numerous aspects of oculomotor functionality including: gaze holding, slow and fast eye movements, optokinetic responses, and spontaneous/involuntary eye movements.
- Computerized Assessment of Postural Stability (Balance): 24% improvement in balance under the most challenging circumstances (eyes closed on an unstable surface – noted as PSEC on charts below below). Near complete normalization of a hazardous posterior center of pressure (tendency to carry his body or sway to the rear):
Implications Following Treatment
After his treatment was completed, John says he was able to recapture the moments of joy and sense of accomplishment he experienced through playing tennis and flying his aircraft, his two favorite hobbies; as well as being more engaged with his family.
He reports his memory has improved, he has fewer symptoms of dizziness and fatigue, and most important – he is now a safer, happier pilot following his specific Brain Training program.
Testosterone, estrogen, dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline, oxytocin and vasopressin…
These brain chemicals and hormones have everything to do with all phases of love, from attraction or ‘love at first sight’ to long-term relationships and attachment.
The phase of superficial attraction vs. the deeper bonding you may be in dictates what chemicals will be present and in what amounts. Also, factors such as gender and overall physical and mental health play a role in what stages of love one is (or isn’t) in based on the nature and quantity of chemicals produced.
In general, earlier stages of attraction are dominated by adrenaline and dopamine; which account for behavioral traits of being clumsy and tongue tied due to stress responses encountering your love interest with the former, and having increased focus and energy with the latter. Serotonin is what can get you into trouble as this is what causes you to focus on your attraction more than anything else – very similar to the decrease in serotonin levels observed in those with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).
The latter stages of attachment and deeper bonding are orchestrated primarily by oxytocin and vasopressin; although other factors are present at all stages in varying amounts, depending on level of attachment and continued attraction. Oxytocin has been called the “cuddle hormone” and is an integral part of bonding between couples, mother and child, and, interestingly enough, dogs and their humans. (our four-legged friends produce this when they see their favorite person). Vasopressin has been shown to enhance interpersonal relationships through positive communication.
So, while we don’t want to dissect this most natural of emotions too much during the Valentine’s Day season, a basic understanding of the brain chemicals discussed and the many influences upon them (e.g. diet, exercise, stress, sleep, environmental factors, brain injury, mental health disorders, etc.) is in order for you to better understand how you view the world and how it views you through the “eyes of love”.