Addiction or, more appropriately, substance use disorder (SUD) is defined as one’s recurrent use of drugs and/or alcohol leading to significant clinical and functional impairment. This impairment may be reflected in the areas of physical and mental health, employment, school, relationships, finances, and more.
One thing is for certain – the vast majority of those struggling with SUD also have underlying challenges with learning and behavior, and may have one or more mental health disorders. While the reasons for these underlying challenges are likely as many as the number of challenges themselves, this shifting of perspective away from the genetic view of addiction offers great hope for those seeking progressive therapies that, in many cases, can have a profound impact on the underlying disorders and the problem behaviors and outcomes associated with SUD.
Newer thinking also dictates that addictive tendencies can be due to factors such as concussion and traumatic brain injury, and metabolic imbalances caused by food allergies, environmental toxicities, nutrient deficiencies, and the like. And let’s not forget stress…
In order for progressive brain-based modalities to be delivered effectively, which provide a tremendous complement to standard mental health strategies implemented during both in-patient and out-patient programs alike, one needs to understand that SUD is not a disease as we would normally think of one (e.g. cancer, Parkinson’s, etc.), and it is not a moral failing or a character flaw on the part of the user. SUD can affect anyone… of any class, race, gender, and ethnicity.
SUD is in fact a ‘brain problem’ that, in many respects, can be measured and needs to be approached as such for maximum gains. Let us consider 5 areas of measurement related to brain function that reveal a great deal about learning, behavior, and mental health status; and, more importantly, let us realize that something can be done to improve upon function in any or all of these areas:
- Brainwave Activity (EEG) – In our brain we have networks related to attention, vision, sensations, relaxation, emotions, vital functions, and more. How much delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma brainwave activity we have under different circumstances dictates how well various parts of these networks perform. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) is gaining popularity in select mental health circles as an extremely viable diagnostic tool that can enable us to peer into the inner workings of the brain and these brain networks that make us uniquely human.
- Cognitive Testing – Executive function, cognitive flexibility, simple and complex attention, and processing speed are just a few of the tests of higher cognitive function that can reveal a great deal about how one’s brain interacts with its environment. They are also excellent diagnostic tools for monitoring progress when treating the various subsets of learning and behavioral issues underlying SUD.
- Metabolic Function – Blood sugar, amino acids, urine organic acids, food antibodies, heavy metals, environmental toxins, hormones, neurotransmitters, vital nutrients, genetic variants, and so much more are a mix of both classic and progressive ‘biomarkers’ of brain function. How our bodies handle fuel, utilize nutrients, process hormones, and react to toxins in our environments determines how well our brains handle what is presented to them on a moment to moment basis.
- Eye Movements – Generally ignored in the mental health arena from a diagnostic perspective, eye movements of all types are directly related to the brain regions that control them. From primitive abilities of finding visual targets that involve parts of the brainstem and emotional centers like the amygdala (fear response), to fast eye movements controlled by our higher functioning frontal lobes; eye movements deliver a wealth of information related to SUD and its underlying causes. Videonystagmography (VNG) is one type of diagnostic tool used to measure these types of functions.
- Balance and Coordination – More and more, addiction based programs are implementing movement based activities such as Tai Chi and yoga. From both balance and relaxation standpoints, there is good reason to do so. Our sense of self is largely influenced by our ability to physically interact with our environment. When one has severe balance or coordination impairment, as is seen in conditions like schizophrenia, mental function and behavior will likely be impaired. Measurement tools such as dynamic posturography and standard tests of movement and coordination can be utilized to measure these abilities.
The inherent beauty of any of these tools, that can reveal a wealth of information about cognitive, behavioral, and mental functions, is that they can in turn be utilized to track progress when one enters into a collaborative treatment program with their mental health specialists and qualified functional neurologist. The blending of the ‘brain’ and the ‘mind’ sciences is long overdue and is proving to be clinically effective with regard to its impact on addiction and SUD, and the underlying disorders that are being shown with greater clarity to be the root cause of them.
At the time of presentation to APEX Brain Centers, Roger was a 70-year-old male struggling with severe balance problems, clumsiness, fatigue, and a general disinterest in life. He used to enjoy life as a family man, successful entrepreneur and golfer. Just over 10 years prior he had undergone radiation therapy for cancer that damaged his 8th cranial nerve (the balance and hearing nerve). He had also undergone prism therapies and surgery for eye position abnormalities, which have caused further insult to his ability to maintain good balance and to learn effectively. Although not listed as a primary complaint, he also suffered from significant cognitive decline in several areas as evidenced by very low to low average scores on standardized cognitive testing.
Roger sought care at APEX Brain Centers in Asheville, NC in May of 2015 and underwent an intensive course of Brain Training. He was admitted into in an individualized program directed by extensive diagnostic testing, and led by clinicians highly experienced in functional neurology. What follows is a sampling of some of the cutting-edge clinical interventions and amazing functional gains Roger experienced during his time at APEX.
Intervention for balance and cognitive decline
Roger underwent comprehensive Brain Training at a frequency of 3 times per day over the course of 15 days (with 2 days off between each for much needed rest and recovery). His brain function was carefully monitored throughout the training process with measurement of EEG brainwaves, vital signs, eye movements, balance, mental and physical timing, and more to ensure he was receiving the proper amount therapy to be effective, but not too much so as to be counter-productive. Modalities implemented included, but were not limited to: neurofeedback (NFB), Interactive Metronome, vestibular rehabilitation, metabolic/nutritional therapies, eye movement and neurological rehabilitation, whole body vibration, electrical stimulation, breathing exercises and home care recommendations.
Outcomes after Brain Training
Subsequent to his Brain Training program, Roger reported subjective improvements in the vast majority of his pre-intensive complaints. More profound than that; his wife was quoted as saying, “it’s like I have my old husband back”. She noted that he used to be the life of the party and had been slowly deteriorating over time to the point of sitting in his chair all day and sleeping more and more often. He was finally plugging back into life, putting an end to his isolation and apathy. As is demonstrated by his balance testing, he is also experiencing a renewed ability to maintain balance, allowing him to be safer and more efficient in navigating his physical environment.
Actual, measurable objective improvements recorded with post-intensive diagnostic testing include:
- Cognitive Testing: Increase in his Neurocognition Index of 48%. This is a standardized overall score of cognitive performance. Increases in various aspects of memory, attention, processing speed and more as great as 21%.
- Interactive Metronome: 56% improvement in task average with motor timing, and normalization of hyper-anticipatory timing tendency with motor tasks (i.e. responding prematurely to a pre-set reference tone).
- Computerized Assessment of Postural Stability (CAPS): 20.5% improvement in balance on an unstable surface with eyes closed – bringing him from severe to mild reduction in balance compared to his peers. Elimination of a posterior center of pressure (CoP); significantly reducing his risk of falling backwards.
- Videonystagmography (VNG): Significant improvements in numerous aspects of oculomotor (eye movement) functionality including: gaze holding, slow and fast eye movements, optokinetic responses, and spontaneous/involuntary eye movements.
With an alarming increase in the number of baby boomers and seniors experiencing balance issues and cognitive decline (that are in fact related), it is important to recognize the symptoms of these potentially debilitating disorders and, more importantly, that something can be done about them. Early intervention is key, as the longer one waits and the more function is lost, the more difficult it is to recover and have full engagement with life!
What does it take to get to the top? Persistence, passion, education, goal setting, accountability, flexibility, intuition, creativity, learning from failure, family influence, even what time of the year you are born (according to author Malcolm Gladwell), have all been cited as reasons as to why some are able to achieve the unlimited level of success they desire in business and beyond.
Training your brain??? While this is often omitted on the countless ‘Top 10’ lists for success that can be uncovered by a quick Google search, it is likely the single most important thing you can do to ensure your brain is functioning at an optimal level and able to generate the much needed motivation, attention, focus, planning, and other cognitive abilities that will allow you to successfully implement these other critical ‘CEO traits’ and propel you to the top!
5 Methods of Training and Supporting your Brain for Peak Performance in the Business World:
1. The eyes have it…
We’ve always been told that ‘the eyes are the window to the soul’. I’d like to refine, or re-define, this old adage for our purposes and tell you that ‘the eyes are the window to the brain’! Fast and slow eye movements, separation of head and eye movements, and starting and stopping of eye movements are directly related to your higher cognitive functions. These abilities can be measured via VNG testing and trained through a host of eye movement exercises specifically tailored to your specific deficits, allowing for a higher level of brain function.
2. Ride the wave…
Training brainwaves for peak performance and business success? Absolutely! The applications of neurofeedback are far-reaching and not just for brain illness anymore. The ability to accurately record and analyze brainwaves through sophisticated qEEG brain mapping will help direct you through a course of brain training that will ensure your brain is more capable of achieving the success it craves.
3. Drop the beat…
I have to have rhythm to achieve success? Not entirely, although training your brain’s timing (temporal processing) through matching body movements to precise sound cues will undoubtedly make your brain function a whole lot better on so many levels. The Interactive Metronome is a brilliant brain training tool that will help you do just that.
4. I think, therefore I am…
Thinking, reasoning, contemplating, and strategizing are a few of your higher executive functions that, if exercised appropriately, will maximize your brain performance and thrust you to new heights. Brain games, meditation, and specific neurological training exercises based on your needs and diagnostic testing will help sharpen your cognitive machine.
5. You are what you eat…
The most obvious, yet the most often overlooked! Our brain requires a steady source of high quality fuel to support the never-ending mental and physical processes it engages in. When eating a diet high in processed and refined foods, your brain, simply put, wastes resources in breaking down these foods to ultimately obtain little benefit as they are stripped of the vast majority of nutrients present in whole foods. Learn more on metabolic and nutritional therapy.
The difference between EEG and qEEG lies in the q. A standard electroencephalogram (EEG) records electrical activity or brainwaves that are representative of underlying cortical brain activity. A quantitative EEG (qEEG) applies sophisticated mathematical and statistical analysis to these brainwaves and compares them to age and gender controlled databases compiled from the EEGs of individuals with no known brain dysfunction. Both the EEG and qEEG give us valuable information about real-time function within the brain at the time of evaluation. The qEEG process allows us to create a brain map through this combination of precise measurement and quantitative comparison.
Maps are critical when it comes to getting folks to their desired destination. A qEEG brain map allows us to identify patterns of dysfunction that are often consistent with varying disorders of the brain, such as learning and behavioral issues, emotional disorders, brain injury, and many others. Quantitative EEG is the map we use to guide individuals through their journey of improving brainwave activity and correcting dysfunctional patterns, step-by-step. We use these maps to specifically direct brain training modalities such as Neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation. These are the vehicles that will get you where you want to go in cases of brain-based disorders. Brain maps also allow us to fine tune normally functioning brains for those interested in peak performance training.