APEX Brain Centers

From Chaos to Calm: A Comprehensive Guide to OCD and Anxiety

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety are two common mental health challenges that can have a significant impact on an individual’s daily life. OCD is characterized by persistent unwanted thoughts, known as obsessions, and repetitive behaviors, called compulsions, that are difficult to control. Anxiety comes in various forms, such as generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder, and can manifest as excessive worry or fear about a wide range of situations.

So how do we go from chaos to calm?  First, let’s take a closer look at what OCD and anxiety are.  How are they similar, and how are they different?  What roles do genetics and environment play? We’ll discuss triggers and daily challenges as well as clinical assessments. And finally, we will discover the many strategies and therapies to bring all that chaos to a state of calm.  

Understanding OCD and Anxiety

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders are two separate mental health conditions that can significantly impact a person’s well-being. While both involve excessive worry and fear, the specific symptoms and experiences differ.

OCD is characterized by a combination of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions refer to recurrent, unwanted thoughts, images, or impulses that cause distress. On the other hand, compulsions are repetitive behaviors or rituals performed to reduce the anxiety caused by obsessions. People with OCD feel unable to control their thoughts and actions, which can negatively affect their everyday lives. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder characteristics can be found in both children and adults, interfering with their daily activities and relationships.

Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, involve excessive worry and fear that persist for longer periods and are disproportionate to the situation at hand. These disorders cause symptoms such as rapid heart rate, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, sleep disturbances, and, in extreme cases, cognitive impairment and psychosis.

Our experience for the past two decades indicates that mental health services become significantly more impactful when combined with functional neurology assessments and interventions. In our practice, we help individuals with a range of conditions, including brain injury (traumatic and acquired), cognitive impairment, and learning and behavioral disorders (OCD, anxiety, ADHD, addiction, etc.). Through our evidence-based therapies, we aim to alleviate symptoms and improve daily functioning for those affected by OCD and anxiety disorders.

Symptoms and Signs of OCD and Anxiety

At APEX Brain Centers, we often encounter individuals struggling with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and anxiety; whether as stand-alone conditions, or related to neurological conditions such as brain injury. Although these conditions present distinct symptoms, they can overlap and significantly impact a person’s life.

Common obsessions in people with OCD include worries about contamination, needing order, and fear of causing harm to others. To cope with these distressing thoughts, individuals might perform compulsive behaviors, such as excessive cleaning, arranging objects precisely, or repeatedly checking locks.

On the other hand, anxiety manifests in a variety of ways across different anxiety disorders. Anxiety can lead to excessive worrying, difficulty concentrating, restlessness, or irritability. Physical symptoms of anxiety may include muscle tension, rapid heartbeat, and shortness of breath.

It’s important to recognize the signs of OCD and anxiety to seek appropriate help. Take note of persistent unwanted thoughts, repetitive behaviors, or irrational fears. Additionally, pay attention to physical symptoms such as muscle tension or heart palpitations. Early identification of symptoms can pave the way for a more effective combination of functional neurology assessments and interventions, leading to improved mental health and a more fulfilling life.

The Science Behind OCD and Anxiety: Genetics and Environment

At APEX Brain Centers, we believe in understanding the underlying causes of mental health disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety to provide the most effective care for our clients. Genetics and environmental factors play significant roles in the development of these disorders.

Genetics contribute to the development of OCD, with twin studies demonstrating the importance of heritability. However, the precise mechanisms of how genetic susceptibility influences the manifestation of OCD are not yet fully understood. Genetics can also play a role in anxiety disorders, as individuals may inherit certain predispositions for a heightened response to stress.

Environmental factors, such as upbringing and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), can significantly impact the likelihood of developing OCD or anxiety. Exposure to traumatic events, abuse, or high-stress environments during one’s formative years can significantly impact brain development and may make individuals more susceptible to these disorders. Family dynamics, including overprotective or authoritarian parenting styles, can also contribute to the development of anxiety or OCD symptoms.

Mental health issues can be influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. These complexities necessitate a multifaceted, individualized approach to care. In conclusion, understanding the interplay of genetics and environment in the development of OCD and anxiety is crucial for providing effective care. At APEX Brain Centers, we are dedicated to investigating these underlying factors, exploring new therapeutic approaches, and tailoring our interventions to each individual’s unique needs. 

Trigger Factors and Daily Challenges

Living with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety presents numerous challenges in one’s daily life. Triggers can come in many forms, such as stress at work or school, family dynamics, unexpected events, sensory experiences like certain smells, and much more. Recognizing these triggers and understanding how they affect individuals with OCD and anxiety is crucial for managing their symptoms effectively.

Daily life for those with OCD and anxiety can be fraught with unpredictability. Stressful situations, such as work deadlines, social engagements, or changes in routine, can exacerbate symptoms. Even seemingly mundane tasks can be overwhelming and lead to an increase in obsessions and compulsions. For example, engaging with family and friends can become a source of stress, as intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors may alienate loved ones or create tension within relationships.

Stress management techniques can also play a significant role in reducing the impact of triggers on daily life. Mindfulness exercises, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation are all valuable tools for managing stress and anxiety. Incorporating these practices into daily routines can help individuals with OCD and anxiety navigate their day-to-day challenges with greater confidence and resilience.

In conclusion, understanding the various trigger factors and daily challenges faced by those with OCD and anxiety is essential to improving their quality of life. Through a combination of integrated care at APEX Brain Centers and the adoption of stress management techniques, coupled with appropriate mental health counseling, individuals with OCD and anxiety can find the support and tools needed to effectively cope with their day-to-day struggles.

Diagnosis and Clinical Assessment

OCD and anxiety disorders are complex mental health conditions, and it’s crucial to get an accurate diagnosis to ensure appropriate interventions. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides specific criteria for diagnosing these disorders, but the assessment process often involves much more than simply following the manual. In our clinical practice at APEX Brain Centers, we approach the diagnosis and assessment of OCD and anxiety disorders with a range of diagnostic tools and resources to ensure the most comprehensive evaluation possible.

When a person comes to us concerned about OCD or an anxiety disorder, we begin by conducting a thorough interview and medical history review. This helps us understand the individual’s symptoms, identify any triggering factors, and rule out other conditions that may mimic anxiety or OCD. It’s common for these disorders to coexist with other mental and physical health conditions, so keeping an open mind during the assessment is critical. No two individuals with anxiety or OCD are the same.

Next, during our Day of Discovery, we perform a comprehensive neurological assessment, quantitative EEG (qEEG) and related electrical imaging of the brain, a cognitive testing battery, physical tests related to mental health such as balance and vestibular assessments and testing of eye movements (video oculography), and more. Also, in most cases, we incorporate laboratory testing to determine what metabolic deficiencies/conditions might exist that either cause or complicate matters. 

Another key aspect of our assessment process includes collaborating with mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists or therapists. Their insights and expertise can provide valuable input in creating a comprehensive picture of the person’s mental and emotional state.

Additionally, we use standardized assessment instruments, such as rating scales, to measure symptom severity. These tools can provide an objective measure of progress and help us fine-tune our intervention strategies.

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Therapeutic Approaches to OCD and Anxiety

At APEX Brain Centers, we understand that addressing OCD and anxiety requires a multifaceted approach. Two major therapeutic methods we utilize for our clients are neurofeedback and meditation techniques.


Neurofeedback is a form of biofeedback that utilizes information about one’s brainwave activity to assist them in correcting aberrant patterns of electrical activity in the brain. By using a brain-computer interface (BCI), positive reinforcements are provided to an individual about the state of their brain at any given moment to allow them to correct patterns related to anxiety and intrusive thoughts; as well as the physical symptoms of these issues mentioned above. Over time, these changes can become permanent.


Meditation is another effective tool that we incorporate in our therapeutic approach to addressing OCD and anxiety. Regular meditation practice can help promote relaxation, reduce stress, and develop healthier thought patterns 2. By teaching clients various meditation techniques, we enable them to cultivate mindfulness and self-awareness, essential skills in coping with anxiety and OCD.

In our practice at APEX Brain Centers, we focus on providing comprehensive care to address the needs of individuals with brain injuries, cognitive impairments, and learning and behavioral disorders such as OCD and anxiety. Our approach includes an emphasis on functional neurology, low-level laser therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and neurofeedback. We also utilize balance and vestibular therapies, eye movement rehabilitation, frequency-based modalities, metabolic and nutritional therapies, and home care programs to support recovery and promote optimum mental health.

By integrating these various therapeutic methods, we strive to help our clients achieve measurable improvements in their mental health and overall well-being.

Medication and Side Effects

At APEX Brain Centers, we understand that medication can be a component in helping individuals with OCD and anxiety; although, it is widely accepted that mental health medications are some of the most over-prescribed medications with little being done to address the root causes. It is important to be aware of the different types of medicines available and the potential side effects they may cause.

One common class of medications prescribed for OCD and anxiety are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs work to improve chemical signals within the brain, helping to reduce symptoms related to these conditions. Some examples of SSRIs are fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and escitalopram.

It’s important to note that there can be side effects associated with SSRIs, including nervousness, insomnia, restlessness, nausea, and diarrhea. However, most of these side effects subside as the individual adjusts to the medication over time. If any side effects persist or worsen, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional.

In addition to SSRIs, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may also be prescribed for individuals struggling with OCD and anxiety. SNRIs are quite similar to SSRIs but have a slightly different mechanism of action in the brain.

Benzodiazepines such as Xanax and Valium are some of the most widely used for anxiety and OCD at this point in time, and can come with a host of long-term problems. While designed for short-term use, these drugs most often lead to chronic usage due to the patient feeling they need them to function in daily life, and lack of other approaches implemented/offered to address the root cause of their problems. Further, these are highly addictive medications and can be very difficult to wean off of, even after moderate duration usage.

Holistic Approaches and Lifestyle Changes

In our practice at APEX Brain Centers, we understand the importance of holistic approaches and lifestyle changes in helping individuals with OCD and anxiety. Incorporating these changes can significantly improve one’s mental health and overall well-being.

Exercise plays a vital role in managing anxiety and OCD symptoms. Engaging in regular physical activity can lead to the release of endorphins and neurotransmitter regulation, which helps in promoting relaxation and reducing stress levels. Exercises such as walking, jogging, swimming, or even practicing yoga can have positive effects on mental health.

Yoga is an excellent form of exercise that focuses on both the body and mind, promoting mental clarity and relaxation. Practicing yoga regularly can help with anxiety and OCD by increasing focus, decreasing stress, and fostering a sense of inner peace.

Support groups offer individuals an opportunity to connect with others experiencing similar challenges, thus fostering understanding and empathy. Participating in support groups allows individuals to share their experiences, learn coping strategies, and provide valuable reassurance. One caveat here is that folks should seek proactive groups that will empower them to seek root-cause interventions, and not just dwell on the problems at hand!

Incorporating relaxation techniques like deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, or meditation can help individuals manage stress and anxiety. These techniques encourage mindfulness and promote a sense of calmness and control.

Making lifestyle changes such as ensuring sufficient sleep, incorporating healthy habits, and setting realistic expectations can significantly contribute to improving mental health. Prioritizing self-care and balance is crucial in managing OCD and anxiety.

Adopting a healthy diet plays a significant role in managing anxiety and OCD symptoms. Consuming foods rich in nutrients, antioxidants, and healthy fats can help improve brain function and overall mental health. Examples of these foods include green leafy vegetables, berries, fish, and nuts.

We believe that utilizing holistic approaches in our comprehensive care model can have a lasting impact on individuals with OCD and anxiety. By embracing these lifestyle changes and practices, individuals can significantly enhance their overall mental health and well-being.

Coping Strategies and Management Tools

At APEX Brain Centers, we understand that stress management, coping strategies, and brain health are all interconnected. We’ve gathered a variety of tools and approaches that can be used by individuals to help manage their OCD and anxiety symptoms.

An essential strategy is maintaining a regular journal. Writing down thoughts and feelings can help individuals gain insight into their emotions and identify patterns in their behavior. By tracking anxiety triggers and victories over time, we can help our clients find trends or situations to work on and address during their sessions.

Deep breathing exercises can be extremely beneficial, as they activate the body’s relaxation response and help counteract the stress response that comes with anxiety. By practicing deep breathing techniques, our clients can learn to calm themselves more effectively in anxiety-provoking situations.

Mindfulness meditation is another valuable technique for managing anxiety. It entails focusing on the present moment without judgment, and ​paying attention to sensations, thoughts, and feelings as they arise. Regular practice of mindfulness meditation can help individuals develop a greater sense of awareness and control, reducing the severity and frequency of anxiety symptoms.

At APEX, we focus on providing comprehensive care to address the needs of individuals with brain injuries, cognitive impairments, and learning and behavioral disorders, such as OCD and anxiety. Our approach includes:

  • Functional neurology: Assessing and addressing the root cause of dysfunction in the brain and nervous system.
  • Low-level laser therapy: Using light energy to promote healing and reduce inflammation in the brain.
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen at a higher pressure than the usual atmosphere to increase the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain and promote healing.
  • Neurofeedback: Helping individuals learn to manage their brainwaves and improve their mental state.
  • Balance and vestibular therapies, eye movement rehabilitation: Addressing any imbalances or difficulties in the sensory systems that could contribute to anxiety.
  • Metabolic and nutritional therapies: Ensuring optimal brain function through proper diet and nutrition.

Furthermore, we believe that our foundational neurological and metabolic rehabilitative therapies make other therapies more effective. We aim to provide an encompassing, customized approach for each individual, offering a range of coping strategies and management tools to help them on their journey toward mental health improvement.


  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9063577/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791469/

Dr. Michael S. Trayford is a Board Certified Chiropractic Neurologist and Neurofeedback Specialist with over 20 years of experience in the practice of advanced functional neurology. He is one of the most highly sought-after brain rehabilitation specialists because of the life-changing outcomes his patients consistently experience. After over a decade in private practice and working alongside other pioneers in the field, Dr. Trayford developed his multimodal intensive brain training and rehabilitation program built around the science of Neuroplasticity – the ability of the brain to learn and grow dependent upon the stimulation it receives from its environment. He later founded APEX Brain Centers to combine his ground-breaking rehabilitation approach with a unique patient and caretaker-centered care model. Under Dr. Trayford’s leadership, APEX Brain Centers has successfully treated thousands of patients and earned the reputation of a world-renowned brain training and rehabilitation practice. Since its inception, Dr. Trayford has been a leader of the Brain Training revolution treating patients worldwide. In addition, he is a published journal contributor and international lecturer. His experience with various patients of all ages and neurological conditions has given him a unique perspective on brain health and human performance. He is also well-versed in collaborating with other health care professionals, making him an invaluable asset to any care team. Dr. Trayford was awarded the Functional Neurologist of the Year distinction by the International Association of Functional Neurology and Rehabilitation, where he is a proud member and conference lecturer. Currently, he serves on the Advisory Council for the Dementia Society of America and the Board of Directors for the International Society for Neuroregulation and Research. He is also a servant leader who has dedicated his adult life to serving multiple communities through Rotary International and other notable causes. When he’s not treating patients, Dr. Trayford usually reads or researches anything related to the brain, human performance, and leadership. He also loves spending time outdoors with his wife Denise, their two daughters, and dogs in the beautiful mountains of western North Carolina. https://www.linkedin.com/in/drmichaeltrayford/

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